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Look for the link on the top each page below the title.Note: many of the pages are now available.Last modified on 10-12-2015 ga.In printer friendly pdf format.
Source (vendor) and catalog number for reagents used, e.g., "....poly-l-lysine (sigma #1309)." when using a method described in another.Do you know when you have enough information in your abstract? a simple rule-of-thumb is to imagine that you.To clearly state the purpose and /or hypothesis that you investigated. when you are first learning to write in this.7.6 cm; n=34) in the ay 1995 pool of biology majors (two-sample t-test, t = 5.78,
Writing instructors may tell you not to use the same word twice in a sentence, it's okay.And decide which articles they want to read in depth. the abstract should be a little less.
S. Maloy 10/01 Guidelines for Writing a Scientific Paper Writing an effective scientific paper is not easy. A
As a scientist, you are expected to share your research work with others in various forms. probably the most demanding of these forms is the paper published in a scientific journal. such papers have high standards of quality, and they are formally disseminated and archived. therefore, they constitute valuable, lasting references for other scientists — and for you, too. in fact, the number of papers you publish and their importance (as suggested by their impact factor) are often viewed as a reflection of your scientific achievements. writing high-quality scientific papers takes time, but it is time well invested.As you may have noticed, however, many scientific papers fail to usefully communicate research work to their audience. they focus on the authors instead of on the readers by failing to clarify the motivation for the work or by including unnecessary details. or they try to impress the readers rather than inform them. as a result, they are interesting to or understandable by only a small set of highly specialized readers. effective scientific papers, in contrast, are interesting and useful to many readers, including newcomers to the field.This unit will help you write better scientific papers in english. in particular, it will help you select and organize your content, draft your paper, and revise your writing so that your final paper is useful to a broad audience — not just a few specialists.
Yale j biol med. 2011 sep; 84(3): 181–190. published online 2011 sep. pmcid: pmc3178846focus: education — career advicehow to write your first research paperelena d. kallestinovagraduate writing center, yale graduate school of arts and sciences, yale university, new haven, connecticutto whom all correspondence should be addressed: elena d. kallestinova, graduate writing center, yale graduate school of arts and sciences, yale university, new haven, ct; e-mail: email@example.com information ► copyright and license information ►copyright ©2011, yale journal of biology and.
Next, i'll review each step in more detail. but before you set out to write a paper, there are two important things you should do that will set the groundwork for the entire process.the topic to be studied should be the first issue to be solved. define your hypothesis and objectives (these will go in the introduction.)review the literature related to the topic and select some papers (about 30) that can be cited in your paper (these will be listed in the references.)finally, keep in mind that each publisher has its own style guidelines and preferences, so always consult the publisher's guide for authors.[divider]step 1: prepare the figures and tablesremember that "a figure is worth a thousand words." hence, illustrations, including figures and tables, are the most efficient way to present your results. your data are the driving force of the paper, so your illustrations are critical!how do you decide between presenting your data as tables or figures? generally, tables give the actual experimental results, while figures are often used for comparisons of experimental results with those of previous works, or with calculated/theoretical values (figure 1).whatever your choice is, no illustrations should duplicate the information described elsewhere in the manuscript.another important factor: figure and table legends must be self-explanatory (figure 2).when presenting your tables and figures, appearances count! to this end:avoid crowded plots (figure 3), using only three or four data sets per figure; use well-selected scales.think about appropriate axis label sizeinclude clear symbols and data sets that are easy to distinguish.never include long boring tables (e.g., chemical compositions of emulsion systems or lists of species and abundances). you can include them as supplementary material.if you are using photographs, each must have a scale marker, or scale bar, of professional quality in one corner.in photographs and figures, use color only when necessary when submitting to a print publication. if different line styles can clarify the meaning, never use colors or other thrilling effects or you will be charged with expensive fees. of course, this does not apply to online journals. for many journals, you can submit duplicate figures: one in color for the online version of the journal and pdfs, and another in black and white for the hardcopy journal (figure 4).another common problem is the misuse of lines and histograms. lines joining data only can be used when presenting time series or consecutive samples data (e.g., in a transect from coast to offshore in figure 5). however, when there is no connection between samples or there is not a gradient, you must use histograms (figure 5). sometimes, fonts are too small for the journal. you must take this into account, or they may be illegible to readers (figure 6). finally, you must pay attention to the use of decimals, lines, etc. (figure 7) [divider].Step 8: compose a concise and descriptive titlethe title must explain what the paper is broadly about. it is your first (and probably only) opportunity to attract the reader's attention. in this way, remember that the first readers are the editor and the referees. also, readers are the potential authors who will cite your article, so the first impression is powerful!we are all flooded by publications, and readers don't have time to read all scientific production. they must be selective, and this selection often comes from the title.reviewers will check whether the title is specific and whether it reflects the content of the manuscript. editors hate titles that make no sense or fail to represent the subject matter adequately. hence, keep the title informative and concise (clear, descriptive, and not too long). you must avoid technical jargon and abbreviations, if possible. this is because you need to attract a readership as large as possible. dedicate some time to think about the title and discuss it with your co-authors.here you can see some examples of original titles, and how they were changed after reviews and comments to them:example 1original title: preliminary observations on the effect of salinity on benthic community distribution within a estuarine system, in the north searevised title: effect of salinity on benthic distribution within the scheldt estuary (north sea)comments: long title distracts readers. remove all redundancies such as "studies on," "the nature of," etc. never use expressions such as "preliminary." be precise.example 2original title: action of antibiotics on bacteriarevised title: inhibition of growth of mycobacterium tuberculosis by streptomycincomments: titles should be specific. think about "how will i search for this piece of information" when you design the title.example 3original title: fabrication of carbon/cds coaxial nanofibers displaying optical and electrical properties via electrospinning carbonrevised title: electrospinning of carbon/cds coaxial nanofibers with optical and electrical propertiescomments: "english needs help. the title is nonsense. all materials have properties of all varieties. you could examine my hair for its electrical and optical properties! you must be specific. i haven't read the paper but i suspect there is something special about these properties, otherwise why would you be reporting them?" – the editor-in-chief.try to avoid this kind of response! [divider].Step 4: write the discussionhere you must respond to what the results mean. probably it is the easiest section to write, but the hardest section to get right. this is because it is the most important section of your article. here you get the chance to sell your data. take into account that a huge numbers of manuscripts are rejected because the discussion is weak.you need to make the discussion corresponding to the results, but do not reiterate the results. here you need to compare the published results by your colleagues with yours (using some of the references included in the introduction). never ignore work in disagreement with yours, in turn, you must confront it and convince the reader that you are correct or better.take into account the following tips:1. avoid statements that go beyond what the results can support.2. avoid unspecific expressions such as "higher temperature", "at a lower rate", "highly significant". quantitative descriptions are always preferred (35ºc, 0.5%, p<0.001, respectively).3. avoid sudden introduction of new terms or ideas; you must present everything in the introduction, to be confronted with your results here.4. speculations on possible interpretations are allowed, but these should be rooted in fact, rather than imagination. to achieve good interpretations think about:how do these results relate to the original question or objectives outlined in the introduction section?do the data support your hypothesis?are your results consistent with what other investigators have reported?discuss weaknesses and discrepancies. if your results were unexpected, try to explain whyis there another way to interpret your results?what further research would be necessary to answer the questions raised by your results?explain what is new without exaggerating5. revision of results and discussion is not just paper work. you may do further experiments, derivations, or simulations. sometimes you cannot clarify your idea in words because some critical items have not been studied substantially.[divider].Step 7: write the abstractthe abstract tells prospective readers what you did and what the important findings in your research were. together with the title, it's the advertisement of your article. make it interesting and easily understood without reading the whole article. avoid using jargon, uncommon abbreviations and references.you must be accurate, using the words that convey the precise meaning of your research. the abstract provides a short description of the perspective and purpose of your paper. it gives key results but minimizes experimental details. it is very important to remind that the abstract offers a short description of the interpretation/conclusion in the last sentence.a clear abstract will strongly influence whether or not your work is further considered.however, the abstracts must be keep as brief as possible. just check the 'guide for authors' of the journal, but normally they have less than 250 words. here's a good example on a short abstract.in an abstract, the two whats are essential. here's an example from an article i co-authored in ecological indicators:what has been done? "in recent years, several benthic biotic indices have been proposed to be used as ecological indicators in estuarine and coastal waters. one such indicator, the ambi (azti marine biotic index), was designed to establish the ecological quality of european coasts. the ambi has been used also for the determination of the ecological quality status within the context of the european water framework directive. in this contribution, 38 different applications including six new case studies (hypoxia processes, sand extraction, oil platform impacts, engineering works, dredging and fish aquaculture) are presented."what are the main findings? "the results show the response of the benthic communities to different disturbance sources in a simple way. those communities act as ecological indicators of the 'health' of the system, indicating clearly the gradient associated with the disturbance."[divider].
1-4. that is too brief and does not convey to a novice what you have done.Rate at which students fall asleep in class as a function of the time of day.When stating your results in the body of the text, refer to your graphs and.